Harta akan habis digunakan tanpa ilmu tetapi ilmu akan berkembang jika di gunakan..

Menulis sepuluh jilid buku mengenai falsafah lebih mudah dari melaksanakan sepotong pesanan...


Monday, October 4, 2010

  • main bulk cargoes- grain, cotton, and coal
  • transition from sail to steam
  • Europe countries owned the largest part of the world fleet
  • by the turn of the 20th century UK owning 45% of the world fleet,followed by USA, Germany Norway, France and Japan
  • during the first halfof the 20th century, the use of diesel engines and the replacement of steam engines
  • the massive standard shipbuilding projects introduced during the two world wars
  • during the second half of the 20th century, an incredible increases of the world trade: the globalization of the world economy
  • 60% of the growth of the world sea trade was due to the growth of the carriage of liquid cargo, oil and oil product
  • also the growth of the five main bulk cargoes: ore,coal,grain,bauxite,phospate
  • so, the size of ships carrying liquid and dry cargoes increased
  • the second half of the 20th century was characterised by the gigantic sizes of the ship and their specialisation according to the type of cargoes
  • the last third of the century was marked by the carriage of industrial goods, world transport, and port system
  • flag of convenience were used by all maritime nations but in the immediate post-war years more extensively use b all greek and American shipowners
  • after repetitive freight rates crisis of the 1980s they were extensivel use by all western and eastern maritime nations
  • the 1970s was characterised b the final loss of the predominance of European maritime nations,with the exception of the Greeks and Norwegians
  • the rise of new maritime nations from Asia: South korea, China
  • the world division of labour in world shipping had changed dramatically


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